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INDIANS 

AT • WORK 




DECEMBER 1, 1936 

A NEWS SHEET FOR. INDIANS 
AND THE INDIAN SERVICE 







<k[BRAR\£o, 



OFFICE -OF- INDIAN -AFFAIR 

WASHINGTON, P* C. 




V 



INDIANS AT WORK 
CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE OP DECEMBER 1, 1936. 

Volume IV Number 8 

Page 

Editorial John Collier 1 

Samuel M. Brosius Dies 5 

Oklahoma Organization Work Centralized 

Under A. C. Monahan 7 

What I Would Do As Indian Commissioner 8 

Fall Work Is Brisk At Warm Springs, Oregon 10 

Views From The Mission Agency, California 11 

Old Art In New Forms 12 

Chippewas Discuss Problems At Washington 16 

New Land - A Lasting Indian Heritage T. W. Wheat 17 

i Indian Land Purchases Include Varying Types 21 

Recent Election News 26 

Foster Care Of Indian Children 

In Michigan Mrs . C. H. Brown 27 

The Indian Thanksgiving Was For Earth's 

Bounty, Not For Military Victory William B. Newell 28 

This Preventable Accident Will Maim A 

Child For Life 30 

Menominee Indian Mills - A Prospering Tribal 

Business J. D. Lamont 31 

Menominee Mills Shows Profit For Year Robert Marshall 33 

nJ Some Phases of Indian Credit Hazel G. Cragun 34 

The Drought Of 1936 Frederick H. Walton 37 

Harvest At Navajo 43 

First Aid And Red Cross Service Among the 

Sioux, Yesterday And Today Raymond Higheagle 44 

Prehistoric Methods of Water Conservation 45 

Book Review H. Scudder Mekeel 47 

American Indian Exposition Impressions .... Henry Roe Cloud 48 

From I.E.C.W. Reports 49 



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VOLUME IV ; s DECEMBER 1, 1936 - r NUMBER 8 

The eightieth birthday of Mr. Justice Louis Brondeis 
(November 13) should not pass without comment among Indians. 

He is one of our great Americans. He is one of a minority 
race who is wholly faithful to his own people and the more, there- 
fore, not the less, one of our greatest Americans. 

Indeed, I venture a further statement. No race or group 
since ancient Athens has so abstracted its cultural heritage and 
its peculiar historical genius into expressions valid for the whole 
world, as has the Jewish race or group. No race or group so holds 
to its past - to its spiritual nativity. No race or group so claims 
modernity for its home. Possibly no race or group may with equal 
sureness be expected to contribute a distinguishable historical 
quality to universal man of the far future ages. Among the Jews, 
Mr. Justice Brandeis is one of the great; and among Americans he is 
one of the great. 

There are three aspects of Mr. Justice Brandeis 1 philos- 
ophy and method which I will mention here, of particular interest to 
Indians. 



One is his profound recognition of the importance of 
keeping alive, today and hereafter, the significant, energy-build- 
ing and spiritually orienting group-differences . These group 
identities and group uniquenesses are the seed-bed and the germ- 
plasm of our human world of all future time. Hence, Mr. Justice 
Brandeis' active devotion to Zionism; hence, his interest in all 
minorities, and among them the Indians. 

Another of the aspects is Mr. Justice Brandeis 1 convic- 
tion that mankind's salvation rests in the small things rather 
than the big things of society. The small independent business; 
the small cooperative society; the small community-unit; the face- 
to-face "primary" social group; the team, and the cult, and the 
guild. For a hundred centuries the wisest men knew that it was 
these small-unit facts, not the big facts of empire and of mass 
combination, which determined fate and gave to life its quality. 
Our own generation, excited and overawed by the unstable bignesses 
which have usurped the world-stage, has tended to belittle or for- 
get the individual and that specific , intimate and unique group - 
activity which is the maker of individuals. Mr. Justice Brandeis 
is no enemy of bigness, but he is (as a man and as a Supreme Court 
justice) the active friend of these smaller existences which con- 
tain the greater energies of our race. Here, again, Indians pe- 
culiarly should be interested in Mr. Justice Brandeis; for their past, 
and their future too, is a small-scale, not a big-scale fact. The 
small, complexly organized, multiple-interest face- to -face group is, 



for Indians, sureiy the best, even the only possible, institution. 
Let Indians succeed through it, and their effect upon the world will 
prove to he out of all proportion to their mere numbers. 

Finally, Mr. Justice Brandeis was distinguished as a law- 
yer through his use of the data and the methods of science. On the 
Bench, he is a more tireless, and probably a more competent, user 
of social, economic and human science (including facts statistically 
measured) than any other Supreme Court justice living or dead. And 
this (in the measure that other Justices may emulate it) is a tre- 
mendously important item in its bearing upon the future of law and 
of the court system and the Constitution itself in our country. In- 
dians should take note because it is Indians who today (more system- 
atically, I believe, than any other population or regional groups in 
America) are trying to do conscious planning based on and tested by 
experimentation and measurement. 

To Mr. Justice Brandeis, many happy birthdays more! 

* * * * 

On the subject of p_lanning. The Chippewa delegations are 
at the Washington office - representatives of the newly organized 
Chippewa tribe under I.R.A., and of the Red Lake Band. There would 
be plenty of complaints they could bring - there always are plenty 
of valid complaints. But these delegates are preoccupied with 
something else. 

Here are thousands of Chippewas. Their lands, except at 
Red Lake, are mostly gone. Their poverty is extreme. Their trust 



funds have shrunken until the vanishing-point is in sight. What 
shall they do? 

These delegates are thinking with definiteness and with 
boldness, and they know that many forces - federal, state and vol- 
untary - must be brought into concerted action if their problem 
is to be solved. What is most promising is that they have no pan- 
aceas in their mind at all, no extreme propositions or catch-phrases. 
They are right down to earth. 

These woods and lake Indians can remember when Minnesota 
was a very different-appearing state from what it is now. Thou- 
sands - even tens of thousands - of square miles were covered with 
beautiful primitive forests rich with game and with forest fruits, 
and the countless lakes were abundantly stocked by nature. Now, 
one may go hundreds of miles and see little but devastated land. 

Could there be brought into action an integrated and long- 
range plan of reforestation and of the development of forest in- 
dustries, the whole man-power of the Chippewa tribe could be per- 
manently absorbed by forest work alone. Forest life used to be 
more than an industry. It used to be one of the happiest, most 
beautiful ways of life for the whole forest populations. Such it was 
for the Chippewas, and such it could become again. 

This is one of the several problems and hopes preoccupy- 
ing the organized Chippewas now. 

JOHN COLLIER 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs 



SAMUEL M. BEOSIUS , WORKER FOR INDIAN WELFARE , DIES 

Indians have lost a devoted friend through the death, on November 
16, of Mr. Samuel M. Brosius. When he retired in 1933, Mr. Brosius had been 
for over 35 years the Washington representative of the Indian Rights Associ- 
ation. 

Mr. Matthew K. Sniffen of the Indian Rights Association, long his 
friend and associate, says of him: 

"Only those who are intimately acquainted with Mr. Brosius can 
appreciate his real worth. Modest and unassuming, he was imbued with a 
steadfastness of purpose from which he never wavered where the rights of In- 
dians were at stake. A close student of all that concerned the Indians, he 
was careful and exact as to facts and possessed of sound judgment. Once the 
issue was clearly developed, Mr. Brosius could be depended upon to follow 
it vigorously and persistently to the end. Numerous cases that seemed hope- 
less were won by his tenacity. 

"Among the outstanding accomplishments of Mr. Brosius are the land 
rights of the Navajo Indians. In 1898 he was sent to Arizona where the 
Navajos on public domain were in danger of losing their holdings through 
white encroachments. His careful investigation of this subject led later 
to an Executive order setting aside a large area as a reservation for these 
Indians known as the Tuba City Jurisdiction. On the eastern side of the 
Navajo country his work in behalf of Indians living on the public domain 
led to the creation of a reservation and agency at Crown Point, New Mexico. 

"Mr. Brosius called to the attention of the authorities the abuses 
that had developed in Oklahoma among the Five Tribes under the so-called 
Dawes Commission. This led to the appointment of Messrs. Charles J. Bona- 
parte and Clinton R. Woodruff, by the President, for an official investiga- 
tion. 

"When a ruling was made by Secretary of the Interior Albert B. 
Fall, in 1922, that Executive order Indian reservations were 'merely public 
land temporarily withdrawn by Executive order' and no permanent title was 
held by the Indians, it put in jeopardy 22 million acres of land. Mr. Brosius 
followed up this to the White House and it resulted in an opinion of the 
Attorney-General reversing the Fall order. This affected all Indians who 
were living on Executive order reservations, and the land involved was worth 
at least 100 million dollars. When the Fall ruling was reversed, Mr. Bros- 
ius enlisted the aid of Senators Lodge and Curtis, and a bill passed in the 
69th Congress that confirmed the rights of Indians to these Executive order 
reservations. 

5 



"Mr. Brosius drafted the Indian Citizenship Act which became a law 
in 1924. This conferred citizenship upon all Indians "born within the terri- 
torial limits of the United States. 

••As a result of Mr. Brosius 1 continuous efforts on "behalf of the 
land rights of the Walapai Indians in Arizona, part of which was claimed by 
the Santa Fe Railroad under a right of way grant, the proposed division of 
the land was held up, and the matter is now in the hands of the Department 
of Justice. 

"Mr. Brosius played an important part in helping to shape Indian 
legislation, and his advice was often sought by members of Congress." 



WESTERN SHOSHONE DELEGATION VISITS WASHINGTON 



First among tribal delegations to the Washington Office this fall 
is that from the Western Shoshone, or Duck Valley Reservation in Nevada and 
Idaho. These Indians come on general tribal business. Superintendent Emraett 
McNeilly is accompanied by Thomas Premo, president of the tribal council, and 
Harry Thacker, Paiute, secretary. 

The isolation of Western Shoshone is both a handicap and a bless- 
ing. When some new houses were built last year, most of the building mater- 
ials had to be brought the hundred-mile distance from the railroad at Moun- 
tain Home, Idaho. Outlets for produce are limited and far distant. But 
isolation also means enviable independence: the reservation has the resources 
for a good living, a hospital and school facilities, and the Duck Valley In- 
dians have largely escaped contact with the white man's vices. They have al- 
ways earned their way. 

Life at Duck Valley Reservation is based on a cattle economy sup- 
plemented by some irrigation, which makes it possible to raise winter feed 
and subsistence gardens. Last summer the hay was so thick that in spots the 
binder could not take a full swath. 

These Indians wisely seek a well-balanced source of livelihood. 
They are making careful plans for the development and conservation of their 
range, and for better gardens. 



OKLAHOMA ORGANIZATION WORK IS CENTRALIZED UNDER A. C. MCKAHAH 



In a letter of November 14, from Commissioner Collier, the duties 
and authority of Mr. A. C. Monahan as Coordinator of Oklahoma, have been 
broadened and strengthened. His assignment now includes: 

One - Supervision of Organization work in Oklahoma, under the In- 
dian Reorganization and Thomas-Rogers Acts. This does not include the or- 
ganization of cooperatives. 

Two - The formulation, in cooperation with jurisdiction superin- 
tendents, of a general Organization program in Oklahoma. 

Three - The giving of assignments to, and direction over the work 
of Organization field agents, including the drafting of constitutions and 
charters . 

Four - Cooperating, as the Commissioner's personal representative, 
with Indian councils on Organization matters. 

The letter emphasizes that this new arrangement is not intended 
to impair the direct line of communication between superintendents and the 
Washington Office, nor the line of authority between Washington division 
directors and their field personnel. In Organization work, however, it is 
made plain that Mr. Monahan is "assuming a large measure of administrative 
direction and control under the above instructions. Except as stated in 
this letter, it is understood that existing procedures and Washington con- 
trols in connection with Organization will remain as they now are." 

The concluding paragraph of the letter of instruction is quoted 
in full: 

"In thus expanding your function as Coordinator, we are giving, 
perhaps for the first time, a limited but important test of decentralized 
administration into Oklahoma. We are making this test with one segment of 
the program newly instituted through the passage of the Indian Reorganiza- 
tion and Thomas-Rogers Acts. Its importance cannot be overemphasized, and 
I hope that you will have good success in initiating this experiment." 



Trail Of A Wild Turkey 



WHAT I WOULD DO AS INDIAN COMMISSIONER 

Several people in the Washington Office were asked the 

same question: "If you. had just been appointed Commissioner of 

Indian Affairs, what would you do?" It was suggested that replies 

be less than 100 words m length, and that the legal and financial 

actualities of the Indian Office be kept in mind. Here are six 

answers: 

I. 

I would curtail sharply the attention given Indians of 
less than half-blood. They are more white than Indian. I would 
have the real Indian understand that he must stand on his own feet, 
individually, tribally ana racially, spurning rather than seeking 
unnecessary Government help, adjusting himself to the demands of 
modern civilization, reconciling himself to the fact that the days 
of the buffalo are gone forever, to be recalled only in memory. 

II. 
I would: 

1. Treat the Indian problem as a professional job for 
social service work and recruit new personnel from this field. 

2. For all present administrative personnel, institute 

a training school which would teach an objective social and econom- 
ic approach to Indian administration. 

3. Set up an information service that will keep the In- 
dian Office informed as to the social and economic effects of its 
policies on the Indians themselves. 

4. Transfer Education, Health, Extension, Irrigation, 
Forestry, Roads and Land to the regular Federal Department or Bur- 
eau handling these affairs. At the same time, I would transfer 
the general administrative nucleus of the Indian Office to the 
Social Security Board (as a separate bureau under it) where a co- 
ordinated, program might be developed with all Federal bureaus co- 
operating. 



8 



III. 

The first thing I would do if I were appointed Indian 
Commissioner would he to endeavor to secure Mr. Collier's appoint- 
ment as Assistant Commissioner. I would then arrange to take a 
long vacation! 

IV. 

Were I Commissioner of Indian Affairs I would, among 
other things, seek the aid of Congress and private foundations 
in financing for a period of five years a few carefully chosen, 
trained persons who would he willing to make their homes in an 
Indian community. I should assign no responsibilities or duties 
to them; I should see that they were absolutely free from super- 
vision or check-up of any sort. I should ask only that they 
participate in the life of the community as citizens with the 
hope that by such participation they might slowly lift the en- 
tire life of the community to higher levels. 



V. 

If I were Commissioner of Indian Affairs the first 
thing I would do would be to insist that fifty per cent of all 
the administrative decisions now made in Washington should be 
transferred to the field. 



71. 

Were I Commissioner, I would; 

Branch into no new fields of endeavor for the time 
being; attempt to consolidate the gains already made. 

Stress economic development; social and political ad- 
vances mean little to an empty stomach. 

Build up the Extension Division and its services; the 
field of agriculture and industry is basic. 

Place more responsibility on the superintendents and 
other field employees; insist that they take this responsibility. 

Conduct a thorough process of eliminating unfit em- 
ployees; correlate with this process a sincere attempt to secure 
for efficient employees compensation commensurate with the capa- 
bilities expected of them. 



Establish uniform divisional field supervisory regions 
with consolidated headquarters; place in each region a coordinator 
who would exercise influence, not through a grant of administra- 
tive power, hut through the known fact that he was the Commissioner's 
personal representative and exponent of the Commissioner's policies. 

Have members of the Washington staff take a special in- 
terest in, and act as the advocates of, specific reservations; see 
to it that there were no "forgotten reservations." 

Insist on the proper maintenance of Government buildings, 
property and equipment, and on neatness in appearance on the part 
of agency personnel; this smacks of army "policing up", but it is 
axiomatic that one cannot teach others orderliness and alertness 
without exemplifying those qualities. 

* ***** 

FALL WORK IS BRISK AT WARM SPRINGS , OREGON 

All the work going on at Warm Springs - hospital construction, 
sewage plant construction, the E.C.W. program, and a small irrigation project 
- leaves only the older men and the women to attend to the regular fall duties. 
But no home seems to lack its catch of salmon: one sees it drying, or over 
a nit being smoked; dried salmon eggs are being made into pemmican. Huckle- 
berries and choke-cherries are dried, also herbs that the women nave garnered 
for the brews, dyes, and for use in the sweat bath. Always there are tanned, 
buckskin, beads and corn husks for their pick-up work. Gay prints, dress 
patterns, lie about; these were selected when the family picked strawberries. 
hops and potatoes. Each year they maxe these expeditions into the commercial 
fields. They make good wages and in addition they have the privilege of bring- 
ing home produce. 

The wild horses that roam the hills and plateaus mean cash when 
turned over to buyers who are looking for "outlaws" with which to stage the 
Pendleton Rodeo. The sale of their own beeves seems brisk this fall. 

The home economics teacher is carrying on a vocational program. No 
new influence is being introduced into the handiwork, but the old arts are 
being encouraged and fostered. A market is found for the finished articles, 
such as the beaded and corn husk bags and purses, the moccasins and dolls of 
buckskin and baskets of willow and husk. 

The Indian women, mostly the younger ones, meet with the economics 
teacher on Fridays. They rip up surplus army material and with patterns they 
cut, design and make warm attractive garments for their children. They often 
bring their own material to fashion into clothes. The four sewing machines 
hum and the two looms clack these afternoons. 



10 



VIBWS PBOM THE MISSION AGENCY , CALIPOBNIA 




An Orchaxd, Vineyard 
And G-arden 













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The Agency Date Garden Prom Which The Indians 
Derive Their Toting Date Palms 





Road Construction 



Stock Water Tank 



11 



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OLD ART IN, NEW FORMS 



There are many schools of thought a- 
"bout the treatment of the Indian: that he should 
he kept as a sort of exhibit, living as nearly 
as possible as he did when first discovered; at 
the other extreme that he should "be absorbed in- 
to the white civilization about him as rapidly 
as possible. The same divergent points of view 
are constantly at variance in regard to his arts 
and crafts. The purists try to discourage any 
changes in what they consider old Indian forms 
and methods while the commercially minded white 
man would speed up Indian production by intro- 
ducing machinery and factory methods for mass 
production. 

There are, of course, middle-ground 
views and even the purists have accepted as 
legitimate many modern variations and adaptations 
of old time Indian arts - things that are beau- 
tiful in themselves and honestly made in the In- 
dian manner. Stamp boxes or cigarette boxes with 
tops of silver conchas or bow-guards are now al- 
most universally accepted even by the conserva- 
tives although they may still hesitate at table 
silver. Water color paintings on paper without 
perspective like paintings on skins or cave walls 
are also in the accepted class. 

While purists or near-purists offer 
prizes and appoint juries to censor exhibitions 
of Indian goods, the Indian goes his own way, 
somewhat influenced, unquestionably, by what the 
kindly, benevolent white man says about main- 
taining the ancient traditions of his people, 
but also influenced by the sales he makes - for 
money talks even to an Indian. Uncomplainingly, 



From bottom up: Silver ash trays and 
candy dishes, by Navajos; ancient sacred designs 
adorn the smoking equipment made by San Ildefonso 
potters; silver bow-guards have evolved into sil- 
ver box tops for cigarettes; modern interiors 
welcome the pottery lamp. 



12 



the Indian removes his goods ruled out as bad by the Indian Fair Committee 
and sells them to the unsuspecting passers-by at the first street corner. 
It is for this reason that interested committees are saying, "Let us leave 
the Indian to make what he finds profitable and let us turn our attention 
to the stupendous task of educating the public to demand the best." 

Year by year, Indian Fair Committees have admitted innovations as 
permissible as the Indians themselves have learned to handle new shapes 
skilfully, such as pottery ash trays and cigarette boxes, candlesticks and 
delightfully modeled pottery animal book-ends, jars for lamp bases, deco- 
rated tiles, pillow tops with embroidery like the dance kilts or woven like 
the sashes, rain sashes in a narrower width for women's sports wear, even 
tea pots of the micaceous clay which holds water, burden baskets made flat 
at the bottom for waste baskets. 

Anthropologists and amateur committees realize that mere imitation 
even of one's own ancestral art is stultifying and that if Indian native art 
is to survive it must be a growing thing, suitable for the time and circum- 
stance in which it is made and it must be created out of the imagination of 
the individual craftsman, not merely a faithful reproduction of the work of 
his ancestors. Also, judging committees become more humble the more they 
learn. Shapes ten years ago condemned as false have proved to be ancient 
ceremonial shapes long hidden in kivas from the sight of the curious. 

Hopi weaving of so-called men's blankets in brown and white natural 
wool looks for all the world like a copy of Scotch homespun but the same pat- 
tern in cotton has been found in pre-Spanish burials. Today it is woven by 
the Hopi for ladies' sport coats. Little pottery animals charmingly modeled 
are found to be a development of ancient fetishes. Flower sticks ornamented 
with exquisitely carved and painted birds made now to put m flower pots or 
gardens, have evolved from the music sticks used in the backet dance. 



The Pueblos are an agricultural people who have been able to sup- 
port themselves without the use of much real money. What money they have 
comes chiefly from their crafts. In very recent years, Government jobs have 
supplied cash but these jobs may not last forever. By means of them the In- 
dian has acquired a new standard of living which it would be as hard for them 
to give up as for any other race. Although the Pueblo Indian continues to 
live in the village where his ancestors have lived, to wear long hair and 
moccasins because he prefers to, some of the things he has seen and experi- 
enced in New York or the other places he has visited, he is introducing into 
his own home - cook stoves, real beds, bathrooms. Automobiles are becoming 
almost common among the Indians. Whether purist or at the other extreme, 
friends of the Indian agree that he is entitled to certain comforts which 
he can only get for cash, not trade. 



13 



But even the artists and 
craftsmen among the Pueblo Indians 
of New Mexico think of themselves 
still as farmers - that crafts are 
leisure time occupation. One of the 
most highly paid among the Pueblo 
painters lately received a piece of 
new farming land when there was a 
distribution among his village peo- 
ple. A white patron asked him what 
he, a painter, was going to do with 
a farm - "Land is best," said the In- 
dian, "When I paint pictures I buy a 
car and then I have nothing, but when 
I have land then I have it always for 
me and my family." 



But undebatable is the fact 
that land which was adequate fifty 
years ago will not support a greatly 
increased population; water which in 
New Mexico is essential for raising 
a crop must now supply the white man 
as well as the Indian and the more 
aggressive race gets there first, al- 
though the Indians used irrigation 
before the Spaniards ever came to the 
country. Land which fifty years ago 
was fertile is useless now from ero- 
sion. The Government has 'inaugurated 
a soil conservation policy but it 
will be another generation before 
much of the despoiled land can be re- 
turned to cultivation. In pre-Span- 
ish days undoubtedly the Pueblo In- 
dians moved about to new locations 
when there was overcrowding, when 
their soil became exhausted or eroded 
- a practice no longer possible. 



Silver, copper, clay, cot- 
ton, wool, wood - all are used by the 
deft hand of the Indian craftsmen in 
shaping articles of beauty for the 
white man. 




14 



Indian Youth Seeking Home Industries 

As the pueblos and reservations become too crowded, Indian young 
people must go out to compete with non-Indian young people if there is to 
he no more land, no more water available, unless home industries, such as 
their arts and crafts, can be developed to the point of supplying not only 
luxuries but supporting the excess population. Indians who have not been 
dispossessed, as in the Southwest, have a pride of race, a love of home and 
tradition which as a steadying influence and a source of happiness is too 
valuable for anyone to wish to see them lose it. 

Keep The Indian At His Own Crafts 

We who incline toward the purist view believe that the Indian is a 
better artist and craftsman than mechanic or houseworker and we wish to help 
him find a way to supoly his needs by means of his inherited talents. We 
feel that poor workmanship, imitation products, overworked- designs will soon 
overstock a market for "Indian souvenirs" and will not long satisfy the crafts- 
men and women themselves so that from choice they will find other occupations. 
While liberalizing our own views from time to time as to the type of object 
we, admit as Indian, we are trying to educate a public to demand not Indian 
curios but articles of real worth. We know the Indian can make them - pot- 
tery that rings clear when tapped, designs that will not wa.sh off, silver 
that has the beauty of simplicity, rugs or blankets that are restful to live 
with as well as firmly and evenly woven. 

The surest proof that Indian crafts have a general appeal is the 
outcropping of cheao imitations of Indian articles, especially silver. Some 
are made of silver and by Indians but in veritable factories, not the real 
handwork of an individual craftsman. Also chain stores are selling imita- 
tions made of a white metal probably in a factory fa.r from the Southwest. 

Genuine Indian Crafts In National Parks 

A few years ago Secretary of the Interior Ickes issued an order 
that only authentic Indian articles made by individual Indians and of honest 
materials could be sold in the National Parks. The ouality of the displays 
in the curio stores in the parks increased immensely but one must pay for 
handmade goods. Just outside the parks dealers stocked up with factory-made 
articles which could sell for half the price of the real thing - and the un- 
observing tourist has often been heard to remark, "Look how they hold you up 
in the Park! You can get bracelets (or whatever it may be) here for half 
the price," not realizing that these cheaper bracelets represent not the 
imagination and artistic fancy of an Indian but the hodge-podge fancy of a 
white ooss who may be employing Indians or non- Indians to work by the day 
to stamp out factory rolled sheets of silver set with Boston--oolished stones. 



15 



Craftsmanship - Universally Ap-oreciated 

It is impossible to give a recipe for good taste but the Indian, 
uninfluenced by the white man, had taste of such universal appeal that his 
work is treasured by the people of all lands. He used the bow and arrow 
and decorated it with geometric or symbolic figures but he did not of his 
own initiative use the bow and arrow as an element of decoration; that is 
our corruption of Indian design. The Indian, true artist that he is, never 
really duplicates any article or design when left to himself but there has 
been a continuous repetition and development of symbolism .from prehistoric 
times to the present - rain, clouds, sun, moon, birds, deer; geometric pat- 
terns harmoniously combined, vibrating and whirling in baskets and sometimes 
in pottery, but always composed. It is only when ideas of an alien race, 
our own, are imposed on the Indian that the patterns and colors become gar- 
ish and restless. 

So it is the policy of the New Mexico Association on Indian Af- 
fairs and of other organizations which have his interest at heart to en- 
courage the Indian to continue his crafts according to his own development 
and to beg of the intelligent white man that he cease to regard the Indian 
as a curio but accept hira as also an intelligent being, still creating a 
native American art of the highest order which should not be allowed to die 
out for lack of appreciation. ( Copyright 1936 , New Mexico Magazine ', and re - 
printed with permission of New Mexico Association On Indian Affairs . ) 



CHIPPEWAS DISCUSS PROBLEMS AT W ASHINGTON 

The entire Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan Chippewa country is 
represented in the group which has come to Washington to talk general busi- 
ness and their common problems. Ten Chippewas are here: John L. Pemberton, 
chairman, Minnesota Chippewas; John Broker, representing White Earth; J. Mun- 
nell, from Leech Lake; Peter Smith from Nett Lake; Henry LaPrairie, represent- 
ing Fond du Lac; Fred Sam, from Mille Lac; and John Flatt, from Grand Portage; 
also Peter Graves, Alex Everwind, Paul Beaulieu, and Nathan Whitefeather from 
Red Lake. 

Indian Service officials in the group include: Mark L. Burns, co- 
ordinator for the Lake States; J. S. Monks, Acting Superintendent, Consolidated 
Chippewa; Raymond' H. Bitney, Superintendent, Red Lake; Jesse C. Cavill, Super- 
intendent, Great Lakes Agency; Frank Christy, Superintendent, Tomah; J. W. 
Kauffman, who has been newly ap-oointed as Extension Supervisor of the Lake 
States and the Dakotas; Peru Farver, Field Agent, Indian Reorganization Act; 
and A. L. Hook, Land Field Agent. 



16 



NEW LAND - A LASTING INDIAN INHERITANCE 



By T. W. Wheat, Assistant Director of Lands 



Indians and their friends throughout the country will he happy to 
learn that Indian land holdings have "been increased by 2,100,000 acres in 
17 states in the past three years. This is a substantial beginning of the 
program under way to provide lands for landless and homeless Indians and to 
reacquire part of the reservation lands that Indians have lost. 

Some of the methods by which this increase in land holdings has 
been brought about are briefly explained here. 



Withdrawals From Public Domain 

There was considerable land on the public domain (lands owned by 
the United States) in various states, which it was deemed advisable to have 
added to existing Indian reservations or withdrawn in order to establish 
new reservations. Since 1933 numerous areas of this kind of land have been 
withdrawn from the public domain under special legislation enacted by Con- 
gress and set apart for the exclusive use of the Indians. Areas withdrawn 
are as follows: 

State Acres 

Arizona 380,075 

Montana 557 

New Mexico 8,380 

Nevada .. 177,200 

Oregon 15,500 

Utah 80 



Special Purchases 

In addition to the land purchases that are being made under the 
Indian Reorganization Act of June 18, 1934 (48 Stat. 984), other land has 
also been purchased under special authority granted by Congress. These 
lands consist mainly of areas bought within the boundaries of existing res- 
ervations in order to consolidate and enlarge the Indian holdings within 
reservation areas. Also some of such purchases made additions to existing 
reservations or were acquired for the establishment of new reservations. 
These acquisitions are as follows: 



17 



State Acre a 

Arizona 310,146 

California .. 1,600 

New Mexico .. 237 

Oregon 155 

Arizona Nava.jo Boundary Act Purchases 

In 1934 an act was passed establishing a new southern boundary of 
the Navajo Reservation in Arizona. The Department has also "been striving to 
obtain legislation to reestablish the eastern boundary of the Navajo Reserva- 
tion in New Mexico, including three separate areas to also be set aside for 
the Navajos. These new boundary lines, as already set up in Arizona and pro- 
posed in New Mexico, are the result of intensive planning over a period of 
years. Under existing legislation, non-Indian owners located within the bound- 
ary of the Navajo-Arizona boundary and the proposed boundaries in New Mexico 
have been gradually relinquishing their holdings within such Indian areas in 
exchange for other lands outside, to the end that the lands within the Navajo 
boundary shall ultimately be used exclusively by Indians. The total acreage 
made available for Indian use by such exchange during the past three years is 
as follows: 

Arizona 7 , 474 Acres 

New Mexico 235,860 » 

Indian Reorganization Act Purchases and Restorations 

The act of June 18, 1934 (48 Stat. L., 984), has as one of its main 
provisions the purchase of lands for addition to Indian reservations or for 
individual Indians. The sun of $1,000,000 was appropriated for use during the 
fiscal year 1936 for this purpose. This money is being used in purchasing 
lands for the benefit of Indians of 34 different reservations, in eight dif- 
ferent states. The lands are located within Indian reservations and also, in 
some instances, outside but adjacent to existing reservation boundaries. Pur- 
chases are also being made to establish new reservations for Indians who do 
not have any land. These purchases, by states, total as follows: 

State Acres 

California 213.19 

Minnesota 6,668.45 

Montana 400 

Nebraska 150 

North Dakota 909. 46 

South Dakota 2,717.10 

Washington 15 . 64 

Wisconsin 240 



18 



Descriptions and photographs of a few of these purchases are given 
in the article beginning on page 21. 

The Indian Reorganization Act also authorizes the Secretary of the 
Interior to restore to exclusive tribal ownership undisposed lands of Indian 
reservations that had heretofore been regarded as not required for Indian pur- 
noses and which, therefore, had been made available for disposition to the 
public through the General Land Office. There are 16 reservations in nine 
separate states that have lands of this class. The matter of their restoration 
to tribal ownership is receiving the careful consideration of this Office. To 
date, restorations on five reservations have been accomplished. The states 
within which these reservations are located and the areas restored therein are 
as follows: 

State Acres 

Minnesota 9,277.59 

Montana 192,577.06 

Oklahoma 600 

North Dakota ... 48,000 
South Dakota ... 59,504.51 



Resettlement Administration Purchases For Indian Use 

The following table shows lands for which purchases have been com- 
pleted for Indian use by the Resettlement Administration from July 1, 1934 to 
September 15, 1936: 

State Acres 

Florida 2,613 

Idaho 6,414 

Michigan 80 

Minnesota 1,560 

Montana 31 , 533 

New Mexico .... 437 , 492 

North Dakota 317 

North and 

South Dakota 6,461 

Oklahoma 2,525 

South Dakota ... 60,091 
Wisconsin 2,149 



19 






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20 



INDIAN LAND PURCHASES INCLUDE VARYING TYPES 

Here are described a few typical land purchase projects which have 
been consummated or are in process of completion under the Indian Reorgani- 
zation Act. 

Jicarilla 

Location: Rio Arriba County, New Mexico 

Purchase Area: 1,999.76 acres. 

Cost: $34,100.00 







'HB*- 



#?&»* S^N^i^ 



•iES 



■ f "V- ';„■ 



Range Land, Jicarilla 

The lands proposed for purchase for the Jicarilla Apaches are 
homesteads within the reservation boundaries, comprising chiefly range and 
irrigated lands with a few acres of sub-irrigated and dry farming lands. 

These lands are located in the northern portion of the reservation, 
the elevation being from 7,000 to 8,000 feet. The growing season is, there- 
fore, rather short, but the crop yields on the cultivated lands are very 
good. Generally, there are three cuttings of alfalfa per year, with a yield 
of from 3-g to 4 tons per acre. The sub-irrigated lands produce a heavy 
stand of wild hay, averaging about one ton per acre. The dry farm lands are 
used chiefly for gardening purposes. 



21 



There are approximately 700 Indians living on the reservation, and 
about 90 per cent of them are in the sheep-raising business. A few of the 
Indians are in the cattle business in areas where sheep raising has been 
found unprofitable. The lands which are to be purchased are of great value 
to the Indians, especially for the live water located on them. 

The reservation proper comprises approximately 750,000 acres in 
northwestern New Mexico. None of these lands has ever been sold or other- 
wise disposed of from the Jicarilla Reservation. However, there are some 
15 homesteads within the reservation boundaries which were taken up before 
the reservation was set aside. The ultimate purchase of these lands is an 
absolute necessity from the standpoint of eliminating certain undesirable 
social and economic conditions arising from these few alien tracts within 
the reservation boundaries. Their purchase is also a necessity from an ad- 
ministrative standpoint to effect an operative range control. These factors, 
couoled with the necessity for a larger grazing area, make the project of 
naramount importance to this group of Apache Indians. 

The land will be used chiefly for tribal purposes, with the assign- 
ment of a part of the farm lands to individual Indian families, who are at 
present landless. 



Rocky Boy 
Location: Hill and Choteau Counties, Montana 

1936 program (options accepted and purchases 
partially completed), approximately 27,436 
acres, at a total cost of $201,909. 

1937 program (options not yet submitted), 6,802 
acres, at a total cost of $62,099. 

Total: 34,238 acres, for the sura of $264,008. 

Land types: Grazing, cultivated hay land, and 
a few small irrigated tracts. 




Range Country Being Acquired At Rocky Boy 



22 



The Rocky Boy Reservation, Montana, was established by Executive 
order in 1915-16 for a group of homeless and wandering Indians. The Office 
files contain voluminous correspondence about the suffering and destitute 
condition of these Indians. The families came to their new homes in 1916, 
some on foot, so destitute was their condition. These people, who now num- 
ber approximately 750 individuals, have Constructed nearly 100 neat three- 
room houses, have their own gardens, small grains, chickens and approximately 
1,500 beef cattle, and are making fine progress in gaining self-support. 
The present Rocky Boy Reservation, however, contains only about 60,000 acres, 
much of which is mountainous, and it is being completely utilized by the In- . 
dians now living there. 

Moreover, there are some 2,000 Indians living in Montana who are 
destitute and landless. It is planned to settle these homeless people on 
land adjacent to the Rocky Boy Reservation, and to establish them in condi- 
tions similar to those of the present Rocky Boy Indians. The purchased lands 
will provide home-sites for as many of them as possible, with grazing land 
and tracts suitable for raising hay for winter feed for their live stock. 
The area, being purchased also contains some small irrigation systems which 
will be very valuable in increasing the hay crop. 



Lower Brule 
Location: Lyman County, South Dakota. 

1936 program (options accepted and purchase par- 
tially completed), 12,054.15 acres for the sum of 
$73,776.99. 

1937 program, $50,000 allocated to this project. 
Preliminary plan indicates proposed purchase of 
1,500 acres at total cost of approximately 
$11,250. Options not yet submitted for 1937. 

Land types: Farming and grazing, with small ir- 
rigable tracts along the Missouri River. 

More than half of the original area, of the Lower Brule Reservation 
has passed from Indian ownership. The remaining Indian lands are so inter- 
spersed with white-owned land that control of any large area is impossible 
and operation of any project through cooperative organization is difficult. 

Land in this project will be used to resettle Indian families who 
are landless or who have only land unfit for home-site and subsistence farm- 
ing purposes. It is estimated that approximately 100 families or about 500 
individual Indians will be benefited. The areas to be acquired block well 
with Indian holdings. The better class of land adapts itself to formulation 
of small subsistence homestead tracts along the Missouri River with irriga- 
tion possibilities. The balance of the land will provide desirable range for 
live stock. 

23 



Bad River , Great Lakes Agency 

Location: Ashland, Wisconsin. 

Purchase area: 814.97 acres 

Cost: $20,475.00. 

The tracts proposed for purchase here are improved farms, compris- 
ing a total of 502 acres of agricultural lands, 210.40 acres of open pasture, 
100 acres of forest land, and 2.57 acres purchased to provide a means of in- 
gress and egress to the Odanah Cemetery. 

The program as now planned contemplates the assignment of these 
lands to landless Chippewa Indian families in ten-acre tracts, which will 
provide a living for approximately 80 families through the establishment of 
small dairy farms and subsistence gardening projects. 

The Bad River Reservation as originally established comprised 
120,755.82 acres. The Indians gained their living chiefly from hunting, 
fishing and berry picking, and were unmolested in their way of life. How- 
ever, the great industrial development of the middle nineteenth century and 
the expansion of the country brought into this area, huge lumbering interests, 
ajid although there was a period of extreme prosperity, the ultimate result 
of the expansion was to leave this groun of Indians with only about one-half 
of their original reservation area remaining in Indian ownership, their tim- 
bered areas exploited, and the checkerboarded area which was still in Indian 
ownership unsuitable for the pursuit of their natural means of livelihood. 

Several attempts have been made in the past to set up farming proj- 
ects, but with little success. It can be safely stated that the Chippewa 
Indians are not, as a rule, inclined toward farming. However, they have 
shown ability, initiative and success in gardening, aJid it is believed that 
the establishment of small dairy farms and subsistence gardens is really the 
solution of their problem. The purchase of approximately 18,823 acres of 
land, under the submarginal program has aided considerably in blocking out a 
contiguous area and will be a great help in administering the Indian Reor- 
ganization Act project, as well as supplying a large area of cut-over lands 
for this group of Indians. 



Flandreau 

Location: Moody County, South Dakota. 

1936 program (purchase completed), 599 acres at 
a cost of $25,000. 



24 



1937 program (options received in the Office), 
741.30 acres at a cost of $39,050. 

Total: 1,300.30 acres for the sum of $64,050. 

Land types: Tillable crop lands. 

The purchase area is adjacent to the city of Flandreau, South Da- 
kota, and also adjacent to the Flandreau Indian Vocational School. In and 
about Flandreau there are about 343 Indians dependent on what employment 
they can find as farm laborers for their living. It was originally the plan 
to provide as many of these landless families as possible with a subsistence 
farm of approximately 40 acres. It has since been recommended that this area 
be increased to 80 acres per family. The extent to which this can be car- 
ried out will, of course, depend upon additional purchases in future years. 
The lands being purchased are largely crop land of good quality with a small 
percentage of pasture land. This is a country of general farming: the chief 
crops are corn, wheat, oats and barley, with hogs and cattle the principal 
types of live stock produced. 

The area of 559 acres alrea,dy purchased under this project was pro- 
claimed by the Secretary of the Interior on August 17, as a new reservation, 
to be known as the Flandreau Indian Reservation. This was the first reser- 
vation created under authority of the Indian Reorganization Act. 



Yerington Project , Carson Agency 
Location: Lyon County, Nevada. 
Area: 1,040 a,cres. 
Cost: $25,000. 




*. t^SB 



Third Alfalfa Crop On Irrigated Land, Yerington Project, Nevada 



25 



This tract is approximately seven miles from the town of Yerington 
and five miles from Wabuska. There is a paved highway one mile west of the 
tract, accessible "by means of a gravel county road, which makes the tract 
desirable from the standpoint of location. A branch line of the Nevada Cop- 
per Belt Railroad passes through a part of the lands in the -Droject. 

The purcha.se area, includes approximately 490 acres of irrigated 
crora land which .produces over three tons of alfalfa, per acre in the three 
cuttings ver year. It is also very good land for gardening purposes, espe- 
cially the growing of potatoes, one of the principal crops in that vicinity. 

There are also approximately 110 acres of irrigated pasture lands 
on which there is at present a very dense growth of wild hay. The cha.ra.cter 
of the soil is the sa.me as the crop land and could be used for the same pur- 
Doses. 

There are approximately 155 acres of sub-irrigated pasture lands 
and 260 acres of dry pasture. The -Giant growth is chiefly sage, greasewood, 
rabbit brush, salt grass, red top, blue grass and sedge. The sub-irrigated 
lands have a carrying capa.city of 12 acres ioer cow per year, while the total 
dry pasture acreage will only carry four or five cows per year. 

The rainfall is scanty, averaging only about 4.40 inches per annum. 
The tract, however, has decreed water rights dating from 1864 to 1905 which 
provide sufficient available water for 800 acres. In addition to the option 
•orice the Government will assume certain unpaid irrigation construction 
charges on the Campbell Irrigation Canal, which benefits this property to 
the amount of $4,508.84 bearing interest at four per cent, to be paid annu- 
ally over a period of 32 years. 

With the lands so purchased it is proposed to rehabilitate approx- 
imately 60 landless Indian families living in the vicinity of Yerington, who 
have been living for the most part as squatters on privately owned lands, 
eking out a scant existence by such odd jobs as they can find in that local- 
ity. It is proposed that each family shall have sufficient land for a sub- 
sistence garden, and additional lands for some diversified farming and for 
pasturage for a cow. The program, it is believed, is a definite step toward 
making these Indians a self-sustaining group. 

***** 



RECENT ELECTION NEWS 

The charter at Cheyenne River Agency was defeated by a vote of 388 
to 409. 

Two more constitutions have been adopted in elections held November 
7; at Covelo (Round Valley), where the vote wa3 60 to 20; and at Keweenaw Bay 
(Great Lakes), where 239 were in favor of the constitution and 18 were opposed. 

26 



FOSTER CARE OF INDIAN CHILDREN _IN MICHIGAN 
By Mrs. Cecil H. Brown, Children's Secretary, Michigan Children's Aid Society 

Boarding home care for Indian children in Michigan was first "brought 
to the attention of the Michigan Children's Aid Society in 1933, when the Sup- 
erintendent of Mount Pleasant Indian School and the social worker discussed 
the proposed closing of the school and asked the cooperation of the Society 
in plans for Indian children who could not return to their homes, and for 
those neglected in their homes. 

The Society undertook the care of these children - the first time 
a private agency has taken over this work with Indian children - with 36 hoys 
and 37 girls from 7 to 19 years old. The Indian Service paid $5.00 per pupil 
per week to cover hoard, clothing, medical and dental care, and school sup- 
plies, and the Society provided the professional services of home finding, 
placement and supervision. 

Medical experts agree that tuberculosis is the most serious health 
menace to the Indians. Tuberculosis was the prevalent medical problem and 
cause of death in the families of these children, four of whom were placed 
in a tuberculosis sanitarium. Dental care was also much needed. The whole 
group showed marked improvement in health, and gained in height and weight 
under the Society's care. Many of these children were orphans and half or- 
phans. 

It is difficult to find suitable Indian boarding homes, and some of 
the children were placed in white homes. Where the right home is found the 
Indian child makes a good adjustment, with courtesy and good manners, and few 
disciplinary problems arise. Boarding homes in the country are preferred where 
there are no restrictions other than those necessary for developing good be- 
havior and the right attitude toward living in a family group. 

These Indian children make very ready adjustments and often make a 
place for themselves in the white family and in the community. It is a ques- 
tion however, whether this is not a surface adjustment; since they rarely care 
to remain indefinitely with white people but prefer to return to their own 
people. 

The consensus of workers' observations shows that Indian children 
must be considered individually rather than as a group, and the need is em- 
phasized for careful thought before separating the Indian child from his own 
family or relatives. Even though living standards may be low and diet in- 
adequate, there is no real substitute for a child's own home. 



27 



THE INDIAN THANKSGIVING WAS M EARTH'S BOUNTY ; NOT FOR Lil LITAKY VICTORY 
By V/illiam B. Newell (Ta-ka-ra~kwi-ne-ken-ne) 
Boys' Adviser, Wahpeton School, North Dakota 

Careful study of the historical background of our present Thanks- 
giving Day shows that all the early Thanksgivings proclaimed since that 
first one in 1637 have "been to thank God for some bloody military victory 
over the Indians, the French, or the English. It was not until the time of 
Abraham Lincoln that we have observed a real Indian Thanksgiving Day. When 
Lincoln issued his Thanksgiving Day proclamation it was to thank the Great 
Spirit for the fruits of the earth. It was the first real Indian Thanks- 
giving and it had taken the whites many years to learn what a real Thanks- 
giving Day should be like. 

It is not the purpose of the writer to blow the mythical white 
man's Thanksgiving bubble into thin air, but rather to point out that the 
American Indian was deeply conscious of the purpose and intent of Thanks- 
giving and its true significance. It is also the purpose of the writer to 
again emphasize the fact that the American Indian was the real originator 
of the one day in the calendar when all people are supposed to thank the 
Great Spirit for the fruits of the earth. 

There was not a tribe in the whole 200 tribal groups in the United 
States that did not hold Thanksgiving ceremonies. It is well-known that the 
Indians of the eastern area of the United States were especially observing 
of special days on which they held religious Thanksgiving ceremonies, thank- 
ing the Great Spirit for corn, beans, strawberries, maple water and so forth. 

The following prayer, which was used in one of the nine Thanksgiving 
days of the Seneca Indians, illustrates to what extent the American Indian had 
developed in his attitude toward the Great Spirit in relation to his spiritual 
feelings and thankfulness for the things that God gives us. Incidentally the 
same nine Thanksgiving days held centuries ago by the Seneca Indians are still 
observed throughout the year. This prayer happens to be one used at the spring 
Thanksgiving festival held each year at planting time among the Seneca. 

"Now is the season of growing things. Now we give thanks 

to our Creator. 
Now we sprinkle tobacco on fire. How smoke arises, it 

lifts our words to Him. 
Now we speak to Hahwenniyu, the great ruler, the great life, 

one Great Spirit. 
Now He listens to the *ords of the people here assembled. 



28 



We thank Him for return of planting season. 
We thank Him that He has again permitted us to see it. 
We thank Him that we again take pert in ceremony. 
We thank Him that He has given us the earth, our 
mother, from whose breast all things grow. 

We thank Him that He has given us seed to give back 

to our mother. 
We thank Him for rivers and waters that flow. 
For herbs and plants, and all fruit-bearing trees 

and bushes that grow. 
We thank Him that our supporters of life - Corn, 

beans, squash - fail us not. 
That famine is not permitted to enter our lodge doors. 

Continue to listen, Hahwenniyu: Again we speak. 

We thank Him that our old men and our old women, 

Our young men and our voung women and children are here. 

We thank Him that the eyes of the people are turned 

to Hahwenniyu. 
We thank Him that the minds of the people remember 
the great wisdom, the one Great Creator, who makes all 

things to grow. 
Now smoke rises, He has seen it. 
Now we have spoken, He has heard it. 

It is done, Naiewhyie." 



There was a time when the American Indian was the most thankful of 
all individuals, when he always thanked his God and his brother for the things 
that were given him. There was a time when all Indians were deeply apprecia- 
tive of all things given them. It seems that nowadays we are blessed with 
too many good things and forget to be thankful or appreciative. If we are to 
be like our ancestors, if we are to be real Indians we must not forget to ap- 
preciate what is given us both by the Great Spirit and by our friends. 



THE COVER DESIGN 

The cover design on this issue of INDIANS AT WORK is a Kickapoo em- 
blem, drawn by George Kishketon, an eighteen year old, full -blood Kickapoo 
Indian. 

George is a patient at the Shawnee Sanatorium, Shawnee, Oklahoma. 



29 



THIS PREVENTABLE ACCIDENT WILL MAIM A CHILD FOR LIFE 



John, a strong, handsome and likable Indian hoy of seventeen, and 
his friend Henry were working in the school laundry. They had often worked 
there "before; they were accustomed to handling the machinery, and knew that 
unless precautions were taken, it could be dangerous. One particular ma- 
chine - an extractor - had just been started, and the lid was closed. "You 
two boys keep away from that extractor," the laundress said. 

As soon as the laundress had gone to another part of the laundry, 
the two boys went back to the machine. "Let's raise the lid," one said. 
They did, and they both put their hands inside to feel the sensation from 
the whirling cylinder. Another moment, and John's left arm was taken off 
at the elbow. 

The principal, of course, has suspended further use of the machine, 
pending investigation as to whether a safety device which will automatically 
hold the lid shut while the machine is in operation, can be secured. 

John's arm had to be amputated just above the elbow. Fortunately 
it will be possible for him to wear an artificial arm with some degree of 
success. As yet John does not seem to realize the far-reaching effect of 
the accident. His parents, however, are broken with grief. The father, a 
waT veteran, without pension or regular support, has always depended upon 
this boy for assistance. Later, no doubt, John will realize the need for 
further training, and his teachers believe that he will be able to prepare 
himself to earn his way. At the present time, he is entirely recovered and 
is spending a few weeks at home. 

Where this accident happened does not matter. It might have oc- 
curred at any agency. A similar accident might have been caused by a mow- 
ing machine, by an explosion, by a drill. There are innumerable hazards in 
any large plant, even the most perfectly run, and Indian Service plants, 
however conscientiously staffed, are not perfectly run. Moreover, much of 
their equipment is far from up-to-date. And were all the equipment me- 
chanically accident-proof, even that is not enough. Vigilance on the part 
of employees and children, and intelligent, careful and reiterated training 
of children are our unceasing obligations. These, and a seeing eye for un- 
covering, in familiar situations, elements of potential hazard. 

Many industries have sharply reduced an accident toll that had. 
long been accepted as an inevitable accompaniment of their work, but they 
have done it only by planning and care. 

In the case of John's accident, there is no evidence that any In- 
dian Service employee was specifically to blame; yet it was a. preventable 
accident , and it happened to a child whose safety was an Indian Service 
responsibility . 

30 



MENOMINEE INDIAN MILLS - A PROSPERING TRIBAL BUSINESS 
By J. D. Laraont, Senior Forester 




White Pine Stands Are Valuable Menoo.inee Assets 



Outstanding among Indian enterprises is the Menominee Mills opera- 
tion at Neopit, Wisconsin. Of course, the heritage of the Menominees, for- 
tunately never allotted, is a rich one: some 682 million feet of salable 
timber, of which 125 million feet is a magnificent stand of virgin northern 
white pine. There are also large stands of hemlock and hardwoods. 

The Menominee Indian Mills originated with the La Follette Act of 
March 28, 1908, which authorized the cutting of timber, the manufacture and 
sale of lumber, and the preservation of the forests on the reservation. This 
act authorized the use of tribal funds for logging operations and for the 
construction of a modern sawmill, and provided that not more than 20,000,000 
feet of timber was to be cut in any one year. An amendment in the act of 
March 3, 1911, provided that dead and down timber could be cut in addition 
to the 20,000,000 feet authorized by the act of March 28, 1908. 

The fine financial record of the past year's operations is shown 
in tne excerpt from a letter from Robert Marshall quoted on page 33. 
Various changes in organization and production methods have helped to make 



31 




General View Of Menominee Mills* 



this good showing possible. 
One new departure was the 
abandonment of the logging 
railroad formerly used to 
bring logs down to Neopit. 
Timber at Menominee is 
selectively cut, in order 
that the forest may be 
maintained on a perpetual 
yield basis. It had be- 
come apparent that a large 
quantity of blowndown and 
mature timber lay at 
long distances from the rail- 
road - hence its abandonment. (Steel and equipment were salvaged.) Truck 
logging has been rapidly developed during the past few years. Timber is cut 
in the fall and winter, and hauled over frozen rough trails, which are cleared 
as needed, to secondary roads, which were marked out and built the previous 
spring and summer and allowed to settle in anticipation of the winter's pro- 
gram. These secondary roads cost about $150 per mile; similar roads for sum- 
mer use would cost from $300 to $500 per mile. 

This system of truck logging has been shown to be more economical 
than the use of the railroad, and it is far more flexible. 

The Menominee Indian Mills operates a general store for the benefit 
of the Indians, and consideration is being given to the establishment of a 
branch store at Keshena, 11 miles from Neopit. The profits of the store 
go into the Menominee Indian Mills enterprise for the benefit of all the In- 
dians. The mills now employ some 500 Menominees, out of a total population 
of 2,000. The Menominee timber inheritance, and its carefully planned ex- 
ploitation, have meant the economic independence of the Menominee people. 



•The 
tower-like struc- 
ture shown at the 
left - a refuse 
burner - was re- 
cently torn down, 
as edgings, slabs, 
and other scrap 
material, formerly 
burned, are now 
sold as sawdust, 
shavings, lath, and 
small dimensioned 
stock. 




Tyoical Blowdown - Large Tree in Foreground Dead. 
Other Large Trees Badly Damaged. 



32 



MENOMINEE MILLS SHOWS PROFIT FOR YEAR 

(Excerpt from recent letter to Commissioner from Robert Marshall, 
Director of Forestry and Grazing) 

tiAt Menominee I was happy to find that the lumber operation, instead of 
going in the red as it has done for about half a dozen years in the past, 
actually made not only the $93,000 in stumpage which was cut, but on top of 
that, a profit of another $81, 000.* I attribute this success a little bit to 
improved economic conditions and chiefly to the fact that for the first time 
in the history of the operation we have been able to get, through the means 
of paying a sufficiently large salary, a first-rate lumber operator in Her- 
man Johannes. In addition to the fact that he is one of the two or three 
outstanding lumber managers in Wisconsin, it is especially pleasant to find 
that his whole attitude has fitted in perfectly with the Indian reorganiza- 
tion program. He never takes any major step without first consulting the 
Menominee business committee, and getting their approval, and they have so 
much confidence in him that they have supported him 100 per cent. He and 
Ralph Fredenberg are working in perfect accord. 

"We had a bad blowdown at Menominee again this year which involved 15 
or 16 million board feet . Johannes has very flexibly changed his whole oper- 
ating plans in order to salvage the entire loss. I took a 21 -mile walk through 
this area with Dick Delaney, our forester; Kephart, from our Regional Office; 
and Jim Caldwell, the Indian logging superintendent of the operation. Jim is 
a real triumph of the policy of working Indians into important positions. 
He has developed into such a good man that Johannes says that if he ever left 
our operation he would like to take Jim with him. We also have an Indian mill 
manager and an Indian yard manager, thus having Indians in three of the four 
key positions of the operation under the general manager. Prior to this admin- 
istration no Indian ever held any of these major positions. All three of these 
men are doing fine work and are holding their positions by competence and not 
by special favor to Indians." 



Note ; "The analysis of the balance sheet of the Menominee Indian Mills 
for the fiscal year 1936 shows that 31,379,200 feet of timber were cut in 
the logging operations. Of this amount 15,979,520 feet were manufactured 
into 18,376,446 feet of lumber at the Menominee Indian Mills, which reflects 
an overrun of 15 per cent. A total of 14,014,770 feet of logs were sold to 
outside parties and 1,384,910 feet of logs were added to the log inventory 
at the end of the year. The balance sheet shows a net profit on the entire 
operation of $81,449.12, and in addition the Indians received a net income 
of $93,435.02 as stumpage for the logs converted into lumber or sold. 

33 



SOME PHASES OF INDIAN CREDIT 

By Hazel G. Cragun - Senior Clerk, In Charge of Re imbur sable Funds 
Division of Extension and Industry 

What Has Been The History Of Repayments 

Before the passage of the Indian Reorganization Act, credit to In- 
dians could he obtained generally only from two sources - 'tribal funds, and 
the so-called "reimbursable" funds. With the maturing of plans for loans 
from the Indian Reorganization Act loan fund (of which $3,480,000 has been 
appropriated) , attention is being drawn, naturally, to the past record on 
these two types of loans. What has been the history of repayments? 

Tribal Fund Summary 

Authorizations by Congress for the use of funds in the United States 
Treasury to the credit of various Indian tribes as loan funds make $1,714,479.59 
- nearly two million dollars - available for this purpose. The 1937 act in- 
cludes appropriations of $356,000 which are included in the above figure but 
none of them were used during the fiscal year 1936. Some of the other appro- 
priations were not set up for expenditure and the actual sum available was 
$1,262,096.62. Repayments to the various funds since their establishment ag- 
gregated $615,128.95 on June 30, 1935, while expenditures totaled $1,432,140.67. 
The repayments represent 42.95$ of the expenditures. 

Repayments Vary; In General They Are Good 

Further study of repayments indicates that the Indians' interest in 
the use of these funds is growing. This is reflected both in repayments and 
in the activities of the members of the tribes in the administration of their 
loan funds during the fiscal year 1936. In this year the Indians of the 
Shoshone and Fort Apache Reservations repaid $13,391.57 and $6,535.21 re- 
spectively. Funds amounting to $75,000 were available to the Indians of 
both of these reservations. The Fort Peck Indians have a fund of $80,000 
and they repaid $7,854.08 during the year. Fifty thousand dollars were 
available to the Indians of Klamath, Fort Hall and Southern Ute and they 
repaid $11,050.00, $7,963.45 and $7,609.28 respectively. All of the above 
funds were established in 1929. A fund of $75,000 was authorized for the 
Kiowa, Comanche and Fort Apache Indians at the Kiowa jurisdiction in 1933 
but only $50,000 has been made available for expenditure. Last year they 
repaid $10,963.79. The Indians of the Crow Agency repaid $11,463.30, which 
would place them second if the reservations mentioned were arranged accord- 
ing to the sums repaid. The Crow f-and was established in 1920, nine years 
before any of these listed above. Since that time, their $50,000 has re- 
volved almost four times. The business which this fund has enabled them 
to transact totaled $183,896.63 on June 30, 1936. The Crows have become 
"credit-minded." 



34 



Repayments during the fiscal year 1936 by the Indians at the ?.7 
jurisdictions using these tribal funds totaled $100,657.76 as conroareo with 
$83,001.06 during the previous year. There are many more good records this 
year. Southern Ute made an unusually good record last year of $17,827.56. 
It was followed by Klamath, $10,255.84; Fort Apache, $8,749 37; and Crow, 
$6,993.22, while all of the others were less than $5,000. 

Loan Committees Render Fine Service 

A number of reservations have active loan committees consisting of 
members of the tribe who give part of their time to the consideration of loan 
applications. These committee members receive no remuneration for their ser- 
vice to the trioe. Their recommendations are of tremendous assistance to ex- 
tension workers and to the superintendent who finally passes upon the greater 
proportion of loan applications. Although no report is available which would 
give a complete record of the tribes having such committees, there has been 
a noticeable increase in the number adopting this procedure. Kiowa and 
Klamath have had committees for a number of years. 

As mentioned above, the appropriation act for the fiscal year 1937 
authorized additional funds for tribal fund loans. Fifteen new tribal funds 
have been established. Undoubtedly a number of these "tribes will find it 
desirable to select loan committees. It should be the aim of every loan com- 
mittee to build up the volume of business by using this fund and by obtaining 
collections which will insure availability of funds for worthy applicants. 
This can be accomplished only by giving preference to those applicants who 
have a refutation for thrift and industry and to those who have well-plejmed 
programs for their agricultural, live stock and other industrial pursuit for 
which they request financial assistance. 

Reimbursable Repayments Lower Than Tribal Fund Repayments 

Most tribes have had to rely upon the general appropriation for 
"Industry Among Indians" for the financial help they have needed in the devel- 
opment of their individual and tribal resources. 

Congress has appropriated $3,349 ,200 for this purpose during the 
fiscal years 1928 to 1936, but $150,000 of the fiscal year 1934 appropriation 
was impounded as an economy measure. This has given an average annual appro- 
priation of $355,466 for the nine year period. 

Repayments and other credits to these appropriations aggregated 
$686,408.85 on June 1, 1936. This represents a repayment of 24 per cent of 
the loans. While this is considerably lower than that of the tribal revolv- 
ing loan funds, it is encouraging to see that cash repayments for the fiscal 
year 1936 were greater than those of 1935 and they exceeded expenditures dur- 
ing the year. The cash collections for 1936 totaled $168,062.74 as compared 
with $82,805.84 during the preceding year. The expenditures during 1935 were 
$124,565.30. Some of the jurisdictions making unusual increases in their 
collections this year are Rosebud, Cheyenne River, Sells, Western Shoshone, 



35 



Fort Totten, Mescalero, Tulalip, Yakima, Coeur d'Alene, Blackfeet, Choctaw, 

Cheyenne and Araoaho and Warm Springs. On the other hand a number of them 

dropped considerably below their 1935 record. They include Navajo, Sac and 
Fox, Winnebago, Sisseton and Truxton Canyon. 

Repayments Vary Among Jurisdictions 

Jicarilla has repaid about 95$ of all loans made during this nine 
year period; while this is a splendid record it should be noted that the 
greater proportion of their reimbursable transactions represents a tribal 
sheep enterprise which the tribe entered into and repaid in accordance with 
its plan from the tribal resources. 

The Indians of two jurisdictions, Navajo and Hopi, have repaid more 
than 50$ of their loans; Cheyenne and Arapaho , Fort Totten and Fort Berthold, 
between 40$ and 50$, Pawnee, Sac and Fox, O v uar>aw, Rocky Boy's, United Pueblos, 
Blackfeet, Carson and Walker River, between 30$ and 40$, and Rosebud, Hoopa 
Valley, Shawnee, and Tulalip between 25$ and 30$. 

There are a number of jurisdictions having tribal revolving funds 
which have had some loans from the fund "Industry Among Indians" during this 
period. In most instances the amounts involved are small and for this reason 
their record of repayments cannot be taken as a reliable index to their en- 
tire record of repayments, although in some instances it does work out that 
those with good records of re-oayraents of these loans also have good records 
for their entire record. Those repaying more than 50$ of these loans are Con- 
solidated Ute, Kiowa, Mescalero, and Yakima; Keshena, between 40$ and 50$; 
Cheyenne River and Uintah and Ouray between 30$ and 40$; Colville, Coeur d' 
Alene, and Flathead between 25$ and 30$.. Perhaps the most significant thing 
about those records is the fact that loans from this fund are receiving at- 
tention as well as loans from the tribal revolving funds. 

Reimbursable Funds Decrease; Re-payments Urged 

The opportunities for lending to tribes having tribal revolving 
funds, however, are becoming less and less in view of the reduction of this 
appropriation by Congress to $150,000 last year and $165,000 for the current 
fiscal year. The increase of $15,000 this year was made for educational loans. 
While we do not know what future appropriations will be, it is extremely doubt- 
ful that there will be any substantial increase in view of the revolving credit 
fund established under the Indian Reorganization Act. In fairness to those In- 
dians having no other source of credit, and to those who are not ready for such 
credit facilities -as they might be able to procure from the new revolving credit 
fund, it becomes incumbent to consider other credit facilities available to 
the tribes requesting loans from this fund. This constitutes another reason 
for encouraging the investment of tribal funds in productive enterprises. 
The same argument, however, is just as applicable to the reimbursable fund, 
since the records of those tribes using it will serve as an index to the use 
which they can make of credit opportunities. 



36 



THE DROUGHT OF 1936 
How Much Was Indian Country Affected; What Was Done; What Must Be Done? 

By Frederick H. Walton 
Field Supervisor of Rehabilitation 



1 

' - 




^r^,-- 




..', . - ... 

•• • •-; 


s , 


- : ^ 


Jan. 


» 




ft 


* " 1 


r 7 " \ ' ' •\BeE\ 



In June of last year the Dakotas and 
Eastern Montana were stricken by drought. By 
the end of July conditions became critical and 
the area in distress, as certified by the De- 
partment of Agriculture, included Nebraska, 
Kansas, Oklahoma, Minnesota, Wisconsin and oth- 
er states having considerable Indian popula- 
tions. 

Attempts at farming in the stricken 
area were futile. Cro-os could not grow with- 
out water, and if by careful tillage and con- 
servation of some scant moisture a start was 
made, the blistering sun simply burned up the 
vegetation. Gardens planted earlier in the 
season wilted and died. Dropping water levels 
caused wells to run dry. Pestilence and epi- 
demics threatened as a result of human consump- 
tion of stagnant water. "There is not a run- 
ning stream on the reservation," wrote Super- 
intendent Dickens of Cheyenne River on August 
17. Live stock had to be sold or moved away. 

And on top of all this came the grass- 
hoppers to finish the desolation. They liter- 
ally cleaned up to such an extent that those 
who were fortunate enough to have a garden snot 
where a little irrigation was possible had to 
fight desperately to keep the starving grasshoppers from taking everything. 

Early in the summer a drought committee was formed within the In- 
dian Office. It was found to be impossible to obtain allocation of emergen- 
cy drought relief funds for the Indians as a separate class. But the Govern- 
ment had set up relief organizations in each state in the drought area and 
the Indian Committee devoted itself to convincing these organizations that 
Indians were entitled at least to the same consideration as any other citi- 
zens of the state. Superintendents were instructed to coo-cerate with the 



v *>■.-.> 



«t| : ;; ji* ' " •» 



Early Stage Of u-araen 

At Fort Berthold, Montana 

Before Drought 



37 



local Government agencies, certifying the Indians for the benefits which 
could he derived from the various relief programs. 

On July 30 the Resettlement Administration made available certi- 
fication of Indians on the same basis as whites within the drought area. 
This was followed by similar action on the part of the Works Progress Admin- 
istration through instructions to the field that no discrimination should 
be made between Indians and whites on certification for work relief. The 
Farm Credit Administration authorized the Emergency Crop and Peed Loan Di- 
vision to make individual loans for a maximum of $200 per individual in the 
drought area, and the Production Credit Division of the Parm Credit Adminis- 
tration extended the facilities of loans for seed, feed, fertilizer and live 
stock. The Resettlement Administration also offered assistance in purchas- 
ing food for family subsistence and feed for conservation of foundation 
live stock. Each of these organizations, as stated before, functioned 
through state set-ups. 

All emergency drought activities for Indians had to be carried on 
in the field by filing applications with local state authorities, and in a 
few instances this resulted in some confusion and delay because the Indian 
field personnel was not familiar with the diversified objectives of the 
various Government agencies which afforded opportunities for them to obtain 
the needed relief and assistance. It was also true that the personnel of 
the state representatives of these Government agencies was not in all cases 
fully informed of the Indians' right to participate. To clarify this situa- 
tion a chart was prepared and mailed to all superintendents, showing the 
different types of relief, the method and form to be used in securing such 
relief and to whom application should be made in the field. Relief was ob- 




After Three Months of Drought, Plus Infestation by 
Grasshoppers. Port Berthold, Montana. 



39 



tained: in the form of seed and crop loans, feed loans, surplus commodities, 
emergency grants and work relief. 

While the situation on Indian reservations in the drought areas 
was, and still is, distressing, it would have been much worse had it not 
"been for the many range improvement and garden projects worked out during 
1934 and 1935. Hundreds of dams and reservoirs had been built' under Indian 
E.C.W., and while some of the dams did not function because of lack of rain- 
fall there were many that filled during the early spring and furnished wa- 
ter for live stock and, in a few instances for gardening projects. Deep 
wells for stock waters were uniformly successful. 

Let some of the Indian superintendents testify, to the great bene- 
fits derived from water development: 

"Many of the dams full of water and supplying large stock 
grazing areas. E.C.W> wells are pumping water where natural wa- 
ter isn't now possible. Springs that were mere seeps during 
this drought are supplying tanks of fresh water to thirsty stock. 
Many of those who raise stock on the reservation have told me 
that if it were not for certain E.C.W. dams and wells on the res- 
ervation they would have had to sell out long ago or move their 
stock." (Superintendent Roberts, Pine Ridge Reservation, South 
Dakota, August 25, 1936.) 

"To date few of our dams have been full of water, but they 
have, practically without exception, contained some water and 
have all been used by range stock." (Superintendent Stone, Sho- 
shone Reservation, Wyoming, August 17, 1936.) 




Typical Cornfield, Five Civilized Tribes Area, Oklahoma, 
Showing Damage by Drought and Grasshoppers 



40 



"The reservoirs, springs and wells already completed during 
the past seasons have made available larger areas of range and 
grazing during the present drought year than would have otherwise 
been accessible, and as a result thereof, less stock will have to 
be shipped out than would otherwise have been the case." (Super- 
intendent Hunter, Fort Peck Eeservation, Montana, August 14, 1936) 

"The drought has unquestionably proved the value of water 
development projects on this reservation. We estimated 75/o of 
the dams constructed by E.C.fi. on this reservation were wholly 
or partially filled with water by the spring run-off. Fifty per 

cent of these have water in them at the present time 

The drought has also brought about the necessity for spring de- 
velopment and wells." (A. J. Jellison, Senior Project Manager, 
Rosebud Eeservation, South Dakota, August 15, 1936.) 

"The benefits derived from E.C.W. cannot be measured in 
terras of dollars and cents. Stock and in some cases human lives 
have been saved by the presence of an ECW developed reservoir, 
well or spring." (Superintendent Dickens, Cheyenne River Res- 
ervation, South Dakota, August 17, 1936.) 

The search for water will be continued to the extent that funds 
are made available until every water possibility has been exolored and de- 
veloped. Additional gardening projects will be inaugurated wherever there 
is any reasonable chance that sufficient water can be made available to ir- 
rigate in case ordinary rainfall should be inadequate. 



''V^^:-*.;?;:,,. 


m^^xw^$iJl h 0llimWKl lieUf ^ mir ' 


*^"' ; .!T'-'*'"' 


-* : "C^jer'Jfc^L ^^^^T Jti 




- 


j / 



The photograph of this charco was taken at Sells, Arizona, 
but hundreds of counterparts may be found throughout the 
Indian country. Small reservoirs, springs and stock water 
holes, developed through E.C.W. funds, mitigate the effects 

of drought. 

41 




42 



Much has "been done and many Indians have been given work, but the 
hard fact remains that in the greater part of the drought area the coming 
winter increases the need and at the same time decreases the work opportun- 
ities. Where the thermometer ranges as low as 40 degrees below zero at 
times, freezing the ground to a depth of from three to five feet, with an 
occasional blizzard thrown in for good measure, there is small chance for 
carrying on work projects. There is therefore greater need than ever for the 
closest possible cooperation between the field personnel of the Indian Ser- 
vice and the various state offices of the Governmental relief agencies, to 
the end that absolute destitution and possible starvation may be averted. 

The story of the drought is not over: it has just begun. Indian 
reservations did not suffer alone - they are a part of a great area of des- 
olation. This widespread calamity has set the nation thinking. It has 
brought out several facts about the Great Plains area; the insecurity of 
farming operations in a country of little rain; the irreparable damage done 
by the plowing up of a dry grass country subject to high winds. It has be- 
come evident that many farms should be returned to grass. The Great Plains 
Drought Area Committee, in its report to the President of August 27, 1936, 
said: "Whether or not the region can support adequately the population now 
residing within its limits is a question which cannot at present be answered. 
In the long run a transfer from cropping to grazing would undeniably reduce 
the population of some areas. Nevertheless, it is possible that a sounder 
agricultural economy, with more assured family incomes and higher living 
standards, might increase subsidiary opportunities for employment. Tempor- 
arily, the work which needs to be done in the fields of soil and water con- 
servation will take up much of the slack." 

The Indian Service is working closely with the Great Plains Drought 
Area Committee. In a letter of November 9 to the Committee, Commissioner 
Collier offers the cooperation of the Indian Office in the rehabilitation of 
the area. He states, however, that the Indian Service opposes any thought 
of removing Indian populations from their homeland. 



HARVEST AT NAVAJO 



A good pinon crop in District No. 16 is reported by Supervisor G. 
L. Milstead. The Indians are working hard to gather the nuts before bad 
weather. Many poor families which have been on relief have not called for 
their issues this month as they are out working. Most of them are paying up 
bills and buying winter clothes with the proceeds of the pinon crop. 

Many Navajo farmers are busy harvesting corn, fodder, hay, potatoes, 
beans and other products. Farm crops are good in most parts of the district 
and a large number are interested in developing more farm land. Individual 
work in farm development has been a good investment for many Navajo families. 
Reorinted from Navajo Service News - October 15, 1936. 



43 



FIRST AID AND RED CROSS SERVICE AM0N& THE SIOUX , YESTERDAY AND TODAY 
By Raymond Higheagle, Standing Rock Agency, North Dakota. 



The American Indian was commonly considered to he "the noble red 
man of the forest and the great outdoors." He was gifted with a fine physique 
He seemed immune from the ravages of many major diseases, and was hardly ever 
plagued with the milder ones so common at the present time. The question 
which confronts the minds of those who do not know or understand the native 
American is with what or how did he combat these ailments during his primi- 
tive state? 

The Indian, was a real child of nature. When in sickness and in 
trouble, he turned to nature for relief. To this end, certain herbs and 
roots which the Great Mysterious intended should be used to give relief, and 
which possessed healing powers for certain ailments of mankind were studied 
by medicine men of the tribe through observation, experiment, dreams, visions 
and prayers. The medicine man was required to be of unblemished character, 
otherwise his medicines would fail him. 




First Aid Class Demonstration At Fort 
Wingate School, Fort Wingate, N. M. 



44 



For the preservation and safe-keeping of these precious herb and 
root medicines, special bags or pouches in bead and porcupine quill work 
were made by the most skillful hands. "The sacred bundles" were recognized 
as objects of reverence by the Indians. Every member of the Sioux Tribe was 
familiar with the remedies such as calamus, anise roots and other common 
herbs and roots for emergency use. In every family these remedies were kept 
constantly on hand for administering first aid. 

In the days gone by, when our people, the Sioux Indians, lived in 
their old way, the "Mini Aku" (They go, bring back and give water) organiza- 
tion carried on work in some ways similar to the great work maintained by 
present Red Cross. This was a young women's organization. The chief of the 
tribe, through the council, conferred membership in the organization to every 
qualified young woman or girl in the tribe. Every member must be prepared 
when called upon to go after, bring back and administer water and aid' to the 
needy, particularly to the wounded warriors, the aged, the sick and those 
in distress. Thus our Sioux people, in their simple way, understood the 
need of first aid and maintained an organization to help those who were less 
fortunate. 

In the primitive life of the Sioux Indian as well as in these mod- 
ern times it behooved everyone, as a sense of duty, to acquire some knowledge 
of how to meet an emergency. The Great Mysterious alone knows what will hap- 
pen to us or to our neighbor within the next minute of our lives. In our 
Government schools and in particularly the higher institutions of learning, 
the teaching of first aid is sometimes correlated with other subjects. 

-It was my good fortune to be among the young men who took the T3CT 
Short Course in First Aid held last summer at Pierre, South Dakota. The 
valuable instructions given me and the knowledge I acquired shall be a last- 
ing inspiration to me. 



PREHISTORIC METHODS OE WATER CONSERVATION 



At Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, a recently introduced ex- 
hibit, which is proving to be among the most popular at that ancient relic 
of the prehistoric Pueblo Indians, is one that illustrates how those cliff 
dwellers utilized to the maximum their scant water supply. 

Just below Balcony House, the shale stratum seep was exposed for 
a distance of several feet and a large pottery jar buried beneath it. The 
jar conserved every drop of water seeping through the shale. In almost 
spectacular degree the exhibit shows how very considerable amounts of water 
may be produced from even small damp seep exposures. Reprinted from - 
"Fact And Artifacts" - Department of the Interior. 



45 



PUEBLO OF SAN ILDEPONSO, WHERE BLUE FLO TOR VISITED 




Photograph by Mario Scacheri 



46 



BOOK REVIEW 



INDIANS TODAY * by Mario and 
Mabel Scacheri is about a little Pic- 
uris Pueblo girl, Blue Flower, who 
traveled with her father to visit 
friends in other pueblos, as well as 
in the Navajo country. The book is 
full of excellent photographs upon 
which the story is built. Its purpose 
should be stated by the authors them- 
selves: 

"Old stories of Indian massa- 
cres, of wild, painted faces and sav- 
age tomahawks, color the minds of most 
Americans in their thoughts of the In- 
dian . . . 

"The Indian as a courteous, 
fun-loving, just, kindly human being, 
with an inborn artistic gift, and a 
sense of color and line superior to 
our own, is almost unknown. The 
charming way of Indians with their 
children, the peace, beauty, and har- 
mony of a clean Pueblo Indian home, 
come as a surprise to most of us. 

"The Southwest is one of the 
last strongholds of Indian life in the 
Indian manner. The Pueblos in their 
adobe towns along the Hio G-rande in 
New Mexico, the bold, proud Navajos in 
their tiny hogans, or log huts, grazing their sheep over miles and miles of 
New Mexico and Arizona, are two of the most interesting kinds of Indians 
left for us to visit. 




Blue Flower Herself 



"The authors, in taking most of the photographs in this book, lived 
for some weeks among these two types of Indians in the Southwest ... 

"Obviously the story running through the book is fiction. Obvious- 
ly the -people are real. The thoughts, the beliefs of the Indians are given 
as we have heard them stated by our Indian friends. 

* Harcourt Brace and Company, New York, 1936. 182 Pages. $2.00. 



47 



"It is the hope of the authors to give a glimpse of the Indians - 
not as you think them. The glimpse is presented, not to grown-ups, but to 
American children, so that they may, after the manner of all children, edu- 
cate their parents." 

The photographs were collected, very evidently, with skill and 
sympathy. 

One might question perhaps, the inclusion of so many photographs 
of Indians wearing the Plains headdress - a genuine part of Northern Pueblo 
ceremonial garb, but hardly as commonly worn as the illustrations might in- 
dicate. 

The book, while intended for children, of perhaps seven to eleven 
years, makes delightful reading for their parents also. By H. Scudder Mekeel , 
Field Representative in Charge of Applied Anthropology - Indian Service . 

Note: The photographs of San Ildefonso Pueblo and Blue Flower were 
reproduced with the permission of Mario Scacheri. 

***** 

AMERICAN INDIAN EXPOSITION IMPRESSIONS 

Dr. Henry Roe Cloud (who is now working on Indian organization) 
sends some impressions of the American Indian Exposition held at Tulsa, Okla- 
homa, September 19 to 26. 

"The officers and trustees of this first American Indian Exhibition, 
many of whom were the outstanding Indian citizens of the state, portrayed to 
hundreds of thousands of white visitors a view of Indian life at its best. 
Public and private Indian collections were exhibited under the able direction 
of Clark Field, among them the Osege tribal collection, the John Abbott collec- 
tion, Mrs. Roberta Campbell Lawson's collection and the Mrs. W. Ferguson col- 
lection. 

"Under the direction of the Tulsa Art Association, Indian artists 
were invited to put their paintings on display. Among them were Acee Blue 
Eagle, Stephen Mopope, Spencer Asah, James Auchiah, Jack Ho-ke-ah and Munroe 
Tsa-toke. The Interest of visitors in these examples of the work of these 
richly-endowed Indian artists was marked. 

"By the use of recording machinery, valuable records in various In- 
dian languages were made - an accomplishment of permanent value. 

"The general public never sees but fragments of Indian life - a Hopi 
or Pueblo exhibiting baskets or pottery at a railroad station, or a group giv- 
ing fierce war cries at a Wild West show. Here at Tulsa, one could see some- 
thing of the totality of Indian life, its richness, its appeal and depth of 
meaning. Tulsa is to be congratulated on giving to the country an exposition 
in native music, native art and native soul, revealed in a genuine setting. 
It was America's antiquity at last becoming vocal." 

48 



FROM IECW REPORTS 



Building; Construction At Pine 
Ridge ( South Dakota) The IECW "build- 
ings that have "been started are rap- 
idly putting on a very nice appear- 
ance . They will , no doubt , he equal 
to any frame buildings now on Pine 
Ridge, both in appearance and work- 
manship, when completed. 

I am proud to say that 50 per 
cent, maybe more, of the labor so 
far completed must be credited to 
Indian laborers. One Indian boy 
who had schooling at the Oglala High 
School in the last year or so, is in 
full charge of constructing the 
brick work. Another Indian boy is 
among the skilled workmen, as car- 
penter. John Calhoff . 

The past week has been a rather 
busy week for the district. Last 
Sunday a great deal of excitement 
was aroused when the buffalo were 
driven from one pasture to the other. 
Many riders had to be employed for 
the reason that it was a rather dif- 
ficult undertaking, should the ani- 
mals escape. It proved to be a 
fortunate day, as they confronted 
no obstacle in moving the herd. 
Benjamin Chief . 

Work On Drift Fence At Fort 
Peck ( Montana ) The drift fence crew 
completed lg miles of drift fence 
this week. The fence is carefully 
constructed, and abides with the 
state laws. The posts are one rod 
apart. There are four wire braces 
every quarter mile. These fences 
are being put in throughout differ- 
ent parts of the reservation. This 
avoids a lot of confusion that may 



come about later on the port of the 
stockmen, regarding leases and tree- 
passing. 

The riprap crews are busy laying 
rock and putting in cut-off walls. 

The reservoir crews are about 
half done on the dams they are now 
working on. We expect to work on 
reservoirs as long as the weather 
permits. Owing to the terribly dry 
condition of the ground, we will be 
able to work practically all winter. 
James McDonald . 

Two Springs Completed At Uintah 
And Ouray ( Utah ) We completed two 
springs, projects 83 and 84 this week, 
which was very difficult to get to on 
account of bad roads. 

Hope to complete fence project 
37 by the first of next week. Would 
have completed the fence this week 
but some of our boys quit, getting 
better jobs. 

There was a very heavy snow and 
rain storm, which made it impossible 
to work. Next week we will complete 
grading the Farm Creek Pass Trail , pro- 
viding we have fair weather. Joe Nash. 

Report From Pipestone ( Minnesota ) 
The boundary fence on the reservation 
is now under way. Posts and wire have 
been hauled out on the reservation. 

Water systems have been put in 
good working order, and the pipes are 
covered with dirt so as to keep them 
from freezing during the winter months. 
J. W. Balmer. 



Various Projects At Winnebago 
(Nebraska) This work has consisted 
of "building fence along the truck 
trail. Teams were used to raise a 
grade across the Morgan land where 
the land was quite low, thereby 
bringing this part of the trail up 
to standard. 

The work of oxearing along this 
trail for the actual width necessary 
is being pushed as fast as possible 
in order to get the blade work done 
before the ground freezes, making 
construction work impossible. 

Some maintenance work Was nec- 
essary in order to repair several 
dams which were partially destroyed 
due to the fact that the extreme 
drought caused large cracks to form 
in the soil, then when the usual 
rains came, some damage occurred, 
also because all the vegetation was 
destroyed by drought and grasshop- 
pers. G. H. Gregory . 

Reservoir Construction At Mis- 
sion ( California ) This reservoir is 
being constructed around a location 
from which springs are bubbling up 
from the ground. The water is warm 
and slightly sulphur and has been 
used by the Indians for many years 
for bathing, washing, watering stock 
and diverted away in small ditches 
for crude irrigation. 

The flow from these springs a- 
mounts to approximately 500, OCX) gal- 
lons in 24 hours. The water in the 
reservoir will be connected with wa- 
tering troughs and also by ditches 
to good agricultural land where sub- 
sistence gardens of several Indian 
families will be watered. 

One of the older Indians, claims 
that the flow of water has been ma- 



terially increased during the past year 
due, the Indians think, to a slight 
earthquake which was felt in this sec- 
tion during the early part of 1936. 

The water bubbles up through cre- 
vices in the granite rock. Tfater com- 
ing from granite formation in this sec- 
tion of -the country is generally very 
pure. 

The walls of the reservoir sur- 
rounding the springs are tied into the 
granite rock and masonry work being 
done by the Indians is very good. The 
walls are substantial, topped by a re- 
inforced coping and the work is all 
being pointed by an Indian who has had 
experience in this kind of work. J. 
Pa.ul Campbell. 

Fencing At United Pueblos ( New 
Mexico ) The greater part of the past 
week was spent in blasting out of 
large rocks in Box Canyon. The brush 
and old trees have been cleared out so 
that the tractor and blade will not 
have any trouble in getting in and out. 

The holes are all dug for the sup- 
plementary posts. One crew of men is 
going ahead digging the holes for the 
dead men. Progress has been very good 
the past week. 

The cedar posts have all been cut 
and hauled down from the mountains to 
the job. Half the fence crew is clear- 
ing the line, and the other half has 
started digging post holes. Show has 
started to fall, and the men are very 
eager to complete this project before 
cold weather sets in. Burton L. Smi th .■ 

Full Force At Work On Potawatomi 
( Oklahoma ) Activities on the Potawat- 
omi are alive, due to the extent that 
we have our full force at work. This 
arrangement is being followed on our 



50 



other Kansas reservations also to 
allow for a saving during inclement 
weather. We have decided to work 
full force during the present good 
weather and complete as many proj- 
ects and work as possible, then call 
a halt during the severe winter months. 
All the men have agreed to this ar- 
rangement and will deposit to their 
personal accounts for subsistence 
during the two or three months when 
weather conditions may make it impos- 
sible to carry out the program eco- 
nomically. P. Everett Sperry . 

Work On Truck Trail At Keshena 
( Wisconsin ) All the enrollees are 
working on truck trail projects and 
telephone construction. The grad- 
ing of the Bass Lake Trail has 
started again but the going is dif- 
ficult as the ground is too wet. 
With two grading crews on this proj- 
ect next week, it may be possible 
to complete most of the grading. 

All of the machine work on the 
Cott Lake Truck Trail has been fin- 
ished. Dump trucks will be worked on 
this trail for a while doing some 
spot graveling. 

The telephone crew completed 
setting poles on old line 3 and strung 
up five miles of wire. W. Ridlihgton . 

Work On Oharcos At Carson ( Neva - 
da ) It rained during the first part 
of the week which interfered with work, 
on the charcos, but another fairly 
good sized charco was made with the 
use of the catemillar tractor and 
bulldozer attached. A wide wash which 
has become silted to a fair depth was 
selected as the next site where a dam 
had been constructed at one time. The 
dirt was scooped out and piled on the 
dam to reinforce it and at the same 
time to make a larger basin to hold 
the water that drains into it from the 
area above. 



Two large ditches or spillways are 
to be made on each side of the dam 
proper to take care of the extra wa- 
ter that may come in case of flood. 
This will prevent the dam from wash- 
ing out, although considerable water 
would yet remain in the charco. ?.oy 
Madsen. 

Bridge Construction At Five 
Tribes ( Oklahoma ) The week was spent 
on bridge construction. The men have 
had a wonderful week for work. In 
fact, this is the best week we have 
had for work in about two or three 
weeks. The men finished excavating 
and started building the buttement 
for the bridge. There has been a 
small crew doing construction work, 
while the rest of the men were en- 
gaged in getting out rocks and haul- 
ing them to. the place of construc- 
tion. They have been kept very busy 
in order to take advantage of the 
good weather. B. C_. Palmer 

Re vegetation Work At Seminole 
( Florida ) Work on range, revegeta- 
tion continued throughout the week. 
A nice rain fell during the period 
which was needed for the grass being 
planted and also for the range in 
general. The range is in fair condi- 
tion but on account of being over- 
stocked the ca.ttle are quite poor. 
F. J. S cott . 

Trail Construction At Colville 
( Washington ) The blunt-nosed bull- 
dozer has been pushing the trail high 
up on the hill, within a mile of the 
goal of our project, Silver Creek 
Summitt. An influx of workers, fresh 
from the harvest fields, have aug- 
mented our crew until we have almost 
as many men as we can care for. Brush 
slashing, tree cutting and skidding 
is progressing rapidly and that part 
of the work will be finished in a 
short time. Leo Livingston. 



51 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION UBBA "'" 




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